Space weather

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CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Dec 4, 2022 04:59 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3276
Begin Time: 2022 Nov 29 1425 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 17352 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: Dec 3, 2022 06:16 PM UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Dec 03 1745 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 891 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Dec 3, 2022 05:00 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3275
Begin Time: 2022 Nov 29 1425 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 8776 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Dec 2, 2022 05:54 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4198
Valid From: 2022 Nov 28 1907 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Dec 03 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Dec 2, 2022 11:59 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4197
Valid From: 2022 Nov 28 1907 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Dec 02 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Dec 2, 2022 05:48 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4196
Valid From: 2022 Nov 28 1907 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Dec 02 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Dec 2, 2022 04:59 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3274
Begin Time: 2022 Nov 29 1425 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 3826 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Dec 1, 2022 05:51 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1714
Valid From: 2022 Dec 01 1435 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Dec 01 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Dec 1, 2022 05:51 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4195
Valid From: 2022 Nov 28 1907 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Dec 02 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Dec 1, 2022 02:36 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Dec 01 1435 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Dec 01 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Dec 1, 2022 02:32 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3273
Begin Time: 2022 Nov 29 1425 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 9440 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Dec 1, 2022 05:36 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1712
Valid From: 2022 Nov 30 1855 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Dec 01 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Dec 1, 2022 05:34 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4194
Valid From: 2022 Nov 28 1907 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Dec 01 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Dec 1, 2022 05:02 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Dec 01 0455 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Nov 30, 2022 11:57 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1711
Valid From: 2022 Nov 30 1855 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Dec 01 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Nov 30, 2022 07:18 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Nov 30 1918 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 30, 2022 06:59 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4193
Valid From: 2022 Nov 28 1907 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Dec 01 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Nov 30, 2022 06:55 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 30 1855 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 30 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 30, 2022 11:55 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4192
Valid From: 2022 Nov 28 1907 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 30 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Nov 30, 2022 11:55 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 30 1155 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 30 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 30, 2022 08:36 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4191
Valid From: 2022 Nov 28 1907 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 30 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Nov 30, 2022 07:11 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3272
Begin Time: 2022 Nov 29 1425 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1710 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: Nov 29, 2022 10:25 PM UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Nov 30: G1 (Minor) Dec 01: G1 (Minor) Dec 02: None (Below G1)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Nov 29, 2022 06:06 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 29 1645 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 30 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 29, 2022 05:56 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4190
Valid From: 2022 Nov 28 1907 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 30 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Nov 29, 2022 04:51 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Nov 29 1647 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Nov 29, 2022 04:46 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 May 29 1645 UTC
Valid To: 2022 May 30 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Nov 29, 2022 03:31 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Nov 29 1425 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 29, 2022 11:49 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4189
Valid From: 2022 Nov 28 1907 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 29 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 29, 2022 05:27 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4188
Valid From: 2022 Nov 28 1907 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 29 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Nov 29, 2022 01:19 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 29 0118 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 29 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: Nov 28, 2022 09:45 PM UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Nov 29: None (Below G1) Nov 30: None (Below G1) Dec 01: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Nov 28, 2022 07:09 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Nov 28 1856 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: No

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 28, 2022 07:07 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 28 1907 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 29 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 28, 2022 07:57 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4186
Valid From: 2022 Nov 25 1850 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 28 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Issued: Nov 28, 2022 05:32 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 28 0532 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 28 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Nov 28, 2022 05:26 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Nov 28 0525 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Nov 28, 2022 03:01 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Nov 28 0259 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Nov 28, 2022 01:59 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 28 0158 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 28 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 27, 2022 11:54 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4185
Valid From: 2022 Nov 25 1850 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 28 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 27, 2022 08:54 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4184
Valid From: 2022 Nov 25 1850 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 27 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 27, 2022 02:28 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4183
Valid From: 2022 Nov 25 1850 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 27 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Nov 27, 2022 02:00 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Nov 27 1345 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 27, 2022 05:56 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4182
Valid From: 2022 Nov 25 1850 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 27 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 26, 2022 05:28 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4181
Valid From: 2022 Nov 25 1850 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 27 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 26, 2022 08:55 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4180
Valid From: 2022 Nov 25 1850 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 26 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Nov 25, 2022 11:28 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Nov 25 2327 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 25, 2022 06:51 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 25 1850 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 26 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Nov 25, 2022 08:49 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 25 0849 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 25 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Nov 25, 2022 06:02 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Nov 25 0559 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 25, 2022 05:06 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 25 0505 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 25 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Nov 21, 2022 03:04 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Nov 21 0259 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 21, 2022 02:48 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 21 0248 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 21 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: Nov 19, 2022 07:34 PM UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Nov 20: G1 (Minor) Nov 21: G1 (Minor) Nov 22: None (Below G1)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: Nov 19, 2022 01:31 PM UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Nov 19 1301 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 930 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: Nov 19, 2022 01:26 PM UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Nov 19 1254 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 19, 2022 05:30 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4176
Valid From: 2022 Nov 18 1910 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 19 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 18, 2022 07:10 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 18 1910 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 19 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: Nov 17, 2022 07:51 PM UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Nov 18: None (Below G1) Nov 19: G1 (Minor) Nov 20: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Nov 11, 2022 04:27 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3269
Begin Time: 2022 Nov 10 1915 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1334 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: Nov 11, 2022 12:50 PM UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Nov 11 1202 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: Nov 11, 2022 08:01 AM UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Nov 11 0714 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Nov 10, 2022 07:44 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Nov 10 1915 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Nov 10, 2022 07:43 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Oct 11 1915 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: Nov 9, 2022 08:16 PM UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Nov 09 2000 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 1242 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 9, 2022 04:48 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 09 0448 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 09 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 8, 2022 08:55 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4173
Valid From: 2022 Nov 07 1140 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 08 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 8, 2022 02:11 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4172
Valid From: 2022 Nov 07 1140 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 08 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 7, 2022 05:56 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4171
Valid From: 2022 Nov 07 1140 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 08 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Nov 7, 2022 05:56 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1703
Valid From: 2022 Nov 07 1425 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 07 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Nov 7, 2022 05:56 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Nov 07 1250 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Nov 7, 2022 02:25 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 07 1425 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 07 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Nov 7, 2022 02:16 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Nov 07 1415 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 7, 2022 11:41 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Nov 07 1140 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Nov 07 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Nov 7, 2022 05:00 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3266
Begin Time: 2022 Oct 30 1220 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 8981 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: Nov 7, 2022 12:40 AM UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2022 Nov 06 2359 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Nov 07 0011 UTC
End Time: 2022 Nov 07 0016 UTC
X-ray Class: M5.2
Location: N15E51
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: Nov 7, 2022 12:34 AM UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Nov 07 0005 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Nov 07 0006 UTC
End Time: 2022 Nov 07 0008 UTC
Duration: 3 minutes
Peak Flux: 740 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 131 sfu

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: Nov 7, 2022 12:30 AM UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Nov 07 0011 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 927 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: Nov 7, 2022 12:12 AM UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Nov 07 0010 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Nov 6, 2022 05:00 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3265
Begin Time: 2022 Oct 30 1220 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 8030 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CANCEL WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: Nov 5, 2022 05:58 PM UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Cancel Serial Number: 924
Original Issue Time: 2022 Nov 03 1636 UTC

Comment: Conditions no longer require this Watch.

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Nov 5, 2022 05:01 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3264
Begin Time: 2022 Oct 30 1220 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 5871 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Nov 4, 2022 04:50 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4169
Valid From: 2022 Nov 03 0804 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Nov 05 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

Table

Date Radio flux 10.7 cm SESC Sunspot number Sunspot area 10E-6 New regions GOES15 X-ray Bkgd flux Flares
X-ray Optical
C M X S 1 2 3
11/04/2022 118 81 510 2 * 5 0 0 3 0 0 0
11/05/2022 131 82 480 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
11/06/2022 131 78 690 1 * 6 1 0 1 0 0 0
11/07/2022 135 80 860 1 * 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
11/08/2022 132 85 730 0 * 1 0 0 2 0 0 0
11/09/2022 138 81 685 1 * 3 0 0 5 0 0 0
11/10/2022 139 79 750 1 * 5 0 0 5 0 0 0
11/11/2022 138 57 750 0 * 15 2 0 15 1 0 0
11/12/2022 138 65 750 0 * 6 1 0 7 2 0 0
11/13/2022 137 74 540 1 * 14 0 0 8 2 0 0
11/14/2022 142 77 890 0 * 12 0 0 13 1 0 0
11/15/2022 134 69 810 0 * 16 1 0 5 1 0 0
11/16/2022 133 85 850 2 * 8 0 0 4 0 0 0
11/17/2022 119 64 370 1 * 8 0 0 8 0 0 0
11/18/2022 116 55 410 1 * 9 0 0 8 0 0 0
11/19/2022 115 59 440 0 * 7 1 0 9 0 0 0
11/20/2022 119 72 520 0 * 1 0 0 10 0 0 0
11/21/2022 117 83 410 1 * 5 0 0 5 0 0 0
11/22/2022 116 61 410 0 * 10 0 0 5 0 0 0
11/23/2022 113 68 440 1 * 3 0 0 3 0 0 0
11/24/2022 110 61 410 0 * 0 0 0 6 0 0 0
11/25/2022 109 55 210 0 * 1 0 0 2 0 0 0
11/26/2022 107 60 350 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
11/27/2022 107 56 150 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
11/28/2022 107 52 170 0 * 0 0 0 4 0 0 0
11/29/2022 108 25 100 0 * 3 0 0 7 0 0 0
11/30/2022 111 12 10 0 * 8 0 0 1 0 0 1
12/01/2022 119 49 330 3 * 5 1 0 0 1 0 0
12/02/2022 124 66 1010 1 * 5 0 0 1 0 0 0
12/03/2022 134 68 1170 1 * 11 1 0 1 0 0 0
Average/Total 123 65 540 18 169 8 0 138 8 0 1

Summary graph

Flares

Solar wind

Solar Wind

The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in density, temperature, and speed over time and over solar longitude. These particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy, from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena in it.

The solar wind is divided into two components, respectively termed the slow solar wind and the fast solar wind. The slow solar wind has a velocity of about 400 km/s, a temperature of 1.4–1.6×10e6 K and a composition that is a close match to the corona. By contrast, the fast solar wind has a typical velocity of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×10e5 K and it nearly matches the composition of the Sun's photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as dense and more variable in intensity than the fast solar wind. The slow wind also has a more complex structure, with turbulent regions and large-scale structures.

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) is an excellent indicator of solar activity. Often called the F10.7 index, it is one of the longest running records of solar activity. The F10.7 radio emissions originates high in the chromosphere and low in the corona of the solar atmosphere. The F10.7 correlates well with the sunspot number as well as a number of UltraViolet (UV) and visible solar irradiance records. Reported in “solar flux units”, (s.f.u.), the F10.7 can vary from below 50 s.f.u., to above 300 s.f.u., over the course of a solar cycle.

Flares

Flares

A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 10e25 joules of energy. They are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection. The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona of the sun into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event.

Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), when the plasma medium is heated to tens of millions of kelvin, while the electrons, protons, and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy is spread over frequencies outside the visual range and for this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. The same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections (CME), although the relation between CMEs and flares is still not well established.

The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year cycle (the solar cycle). Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones.

Classification

Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (in watts per square metre, W/m2) of 100 to 800 picometre X-rays near Earth, as measured on the GOES spacecraft.

Classification Peak Flux Range at 100-800 picometer
W/m2
A < 10e-7
B 10e-7 to 10e-6
C 10e-6 to 10e-5
M 10e-5 to 10e-4
X 10e-4 to 10e-3
Z > 10e-3

An earlier flare classification is based on Hα spectral observations. The scheme uses both the intensity and emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring to the flares as: (f)aint, (n)ormal or (b)rilliant. The emitting surface is measured in terms of millionths of the hemisphere and is described below. (The total hemisphere area AH = 6.2 × 1012 km2.)

Classification Corrected area
(millionths of hemisphere)
S < 100
1 100 - 250
2 250 - 600
3 600 - 1200
4 > 1200

Sunspot number

Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They correspond to concentrations of magnetic field that inhibit convection and result in reduced surface temperature compared to the surrounding photosphere. Sunspots usually appear in pairs, with pair members of opposite magnetic polarity. The number of sunspots varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.

Sunspot populations quickly rise and more slowly fall on an irregular cycle of 11 years, although significant variations in the number of sunspots attending the 11-year period are known over longer spans of time. For example, from 1900 to the 1960s, the solar maxima trend of sunspot count has been upward; from the 1960s to the present, it has diminished somewhat. Over the last decades the Sun has had a markedly high average level of sunspot activity; it was last similarly active over 8,000 years ago.

The number of sunspots correlates with the intensity of solar radiation over the period since 1979, when satellite measurements of absolute radiative flux became available. Since sunspots are darker than the surrounding photosphere it might be expected that more sunspots would lead to less solar radiation and a decreased solar constant. However, the surrounding margins of sunspots are brighter than the average, and so are hotter; overall, more sunspots increase the Sun's solar constant or brightness. The variation caused by the sunspot cycle to solar output is relatively small, on the order of 0.1% of the solar constant (a peak-to-trough range of 1.3 W/m2 compared to 1366 W/m2 for the average solar constant).

K-indices



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Data


Estimated Planetary

Estimated Planetary

Date A K-indices (UTC)
0h 3h 6h 9h 12h 15h 18h 21h
11/05/2022 10 3. 33 3. 33 2.
11/06/2022 4 1. 00 0. 67 1.
11/07/2022 19 1. 00 1. 33 2.
11/08/2022 12 2. 33 3. 00 3.
11/09/2022 7 3. 00 3. 33 2.
11/10/2022 2 0. 33 0. 33 0.
11/11/2022 9 0. 67 1. 33 2.
11/12/2022 5 3. 00 2. 33 2.
11/13/2022 7 0. 67 3. 00 1.
11/14/2022 4 1. 00 0. 33 1.
11/15/2022 2 0. 33 1. 33 0.
11/16/2022 2 0. 33 0. 00 0.
11/17/2022 2 0. 00 1. 00 0.
11/18/2022 7 0. 33 0. 33 0.
11/19/2022 5 2. 33 0. 33 1.
11/20/2022 6 1. 00 0. 33 0.
11/21/2022 10 3. 67 3. 67 2.
11/22/2022 3 1. 00 0. 67 1.
11/23/2022 3 0. 00 0. 33 0.
11/24/2022 6 1. 67 2. 00 2.
11/25/2022 20 2. 33 3. 67 4.
11/26/2022 16 3. 67 3. 00 3.
11/27/2022 15 3. 00 3. 33 2.
11/28/2022 24 4. 67 5. 33 3.
11/29/2022 25 4. 33 3. 33 3.
11/30/2022 24 3. 33 3. 33 2.
12/01/2022 28 3. 00 5. 00 4.
12/02/2022 16 3. 33 3. 67 3.
12/03/2022 10 2. 67 3. 33 2.
12/04/2022 8 2. 00 2. 00 - 1.

Middle Latitude

Date A K-indices
11/05/2022 8 3 3 2 3 2 1 1 0
11/06/2022 3 0 1 1 1 1 2 0 1
11/07/2022 12 1 1 2 2 4 4 3 2
11/08/2022 8 2 2 3 3 2 1 1 2
11/09/2022 8 2 4 2 2 2 1 1 0
11/10/2022 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1
11/11/2022 9 0 1 3 2 3 3 2 2
11/12/2022 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
11/13/2022 6 1 3 1 1 2 2 1 1
11/14/2022 3 0 0 1 2 2 1 1 0
11/15/2022 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
11/16/2022 2 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
11/17/2022 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
11/18/2022 5 0 0 1 1 1 2 3 2
11/19/2022 4 2 0 1 1 2 2 1 1
11/20/2022 3 1 0 0 0 1 2 2 1
11/21/2022 8 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
11/22/2022 2 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 0
11/23/2022 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
11/24/2022 6 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2
11/25/2022 15 1 3 4 3 3 2 2 4
11/26/2022 12 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 3
11/27/2022 10 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 2
11/28/2022 18 4 4 3 3 2 2 4 3
11/29/2022 20 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 2
11/30/2022 17 3 3 2 4 4 2 4 2
12/01/2022 18 2 4 4 3 3 4 3 2
12/02/2022 11 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 2
12/03/2022 7 2 3 2 2 1 2 1 1
12/04/2022 1 1

High Latitude

Date A K-indices
11/05/2022 22 2 2 3 6 5 3 1 0
11/06/2022 4 1 0 2 3 1 0 0 0
11/07/2022 45 0 1 0 6 6 7 5 2
11/08/2022 38 2 4 5 6 6 5 2 1
11/09/2022 14 2 3 5 4 3 0 0 0
11/10/2022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
11/11/2022 23 0 0 5 5 5 4 2 1
11/12/2022 4 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 0
11/13/2022 9 0 0 0 3 4 3 3 1
11/14/2022 4 0 0 3 3 0 0 1 0
11/15/2022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
11/16/2022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
11/17/2022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
11/18/2022 7 0 0 0 3 4 1 2 1
11/19/2022 2 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
11/20/2022 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
11/21/2022 11 2 3 3 4 3 2 1 0
11/22/2022 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0
11/23/2022 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
11/24/2022 3 1 0 1 2 2 0 1 1
11/25/2022 43 1 4 7 5 5 5 3 3
11/26/2022 27 3 2 5 5 5 4 3 2
11/27/2022 27 2 2 3 5 6 4 4 2
11/28/2022 25 4 5 4 4 2 2 4 4
11/29/2022 43 3 2 6 6 6 5 4 2
11/30/2022 54 2 3 2 7 7 3 6 4
12/01/2022 51 3 4 6 7 6 4 4 3
12/02/2022 31 3 4 5 6 4 4 3 2
12/03/2022 24 1 4 4 6 3 4 2 1
12/04/2022 1 1

About

The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm. It is derived from the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer during a three-hour interval. The label K comes from the German word Kennziffer meaning “characteristic digit”. The K-index was introduced by Julius Bartels in 1938.

The Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp-index is derived at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center using data from the following ground-based magnetometers:

  • Sitka, Alaska
  • Meanook, Canada
  • Ottawa, Canada
  • Fredericksburg, Virginia
  • Hartland, UK
  • Wingst, Germany
  • Niemegk, Germany
  • Canberra, Australia

These data are made available thanks to the cooperative efforts between SWPC and data providers around the world, which currently includes the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), the British Geological Survey, the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), and Geoscience Australia. Important magnetometer observations are also contributed by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and the Korean Space Weather Center K-index Watches are issued when the highest predicted NOAA estimated Kp-indices for a day are K = 5, 6, 7, or >= 8 and is reported in terms of the NOAA G scale. K-index Warnings are issued when NOAA estimated Kp-indices of 4, 5, 6, and 7 or greater are expected. K-index Alerts are issued when the NOAA estimated Kp-indices reach 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.


More info
Data source: NOAA, Wikipedia

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