Space weather

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Update

Update
WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 25, 2022 03:07 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 25 1507 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 25 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 24, 2022 09:27 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 24 2125 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 25 0000 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Jan 24, 2022 05:03 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3192
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 16 1445 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 6126 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Jan 23, 2022 05:00 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3191
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 16 1445 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4044 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Jan 22, 2022 05:38 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3190
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 16 1445 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4000 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 21, 2022 10:20 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 21 2219 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 22 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Jan 21, 2022 05:01 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3189
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 16 1445 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2657 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

SUMMARY
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 10pfu
Issued: Jan 20, 2022 09:20 PM UTC
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 10pfu
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 20 0800 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Jan 20 1015 UTC
End Time: 2022 Jan 20 1555 UTC
Maximum 10MeV Flux: 22 pfu
NOAA Scale: S1 - Minor

SUMMARY
Proton Event 100MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1pfu
Issued: Jan 20, 2022 07:32 PM UTC
Proton Event 100MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1pfu
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 20 0745 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Jan 20 0850 UTC
End Time: 2022 Jan 20 1110 UTC
Maximum 100MeV Flux: 1 pfu

CANCEL ALERT
Proton Event 100MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1pfu
Issued: Jan 20, 2022 04:43 PM UTC
Proton Event 100MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1pfu
Cancel Serial Number: 46
Original Issue Time: 2022 Jan 20 0805 UTC

Comment: 100MeV Integral Flux sustained below 1pfu.

Potential Impacts: An enhancement in the energetic portion of the solar radiation spectrum may indicate increased biological risk to astronauts or passengers and crew in high latitude, high altitude flights. Additionally, energetic particles may represent an increased risk to all satellite systems susceptible to single event effects. This information should be used in conjunction with the current Solar Radiation Storm conditions when assessing overall impact.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: Jan 20, 2022 09:47 AM UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 20 0541 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Jan 20 0601 UTC
End Time: 2022 Jan 20 0612 UTC
X-ray Class: M5.5
Optical Class: 1f
Location: N09W78
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 10pfu
Issued: Jan 20, 2022 08:17 AM UTC
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 10pfu
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 20 0800 UTC
NOAA Scale: S1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Radio - Minor impacts on polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

ALERT
Proton Event 100MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1pfu
Issued: Jan 20, 2022 08:05 AM UTC
Proton Event 100MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1pfu
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 20 0745 UTC

Potential Impacts: An enhancement in the energetic portion of the solar radiation spectrum may indicate increased biological risk to astronauts or passengers and crew in high latitude, high altitude flights. Additionally, energetic particles may represent an increased risk to all satellite systems susceptible to single event effects. This information should be used in conjunction with the current Solar Radiation Storm conditions when assessing overall impact.

WARNING
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Issued: Jan 20, 2022 07:32 AM UTC
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 20 0730 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 20 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
Predicted NOAA Scale: S1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Radio - Minor impacts on polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: Jan 20, 2022 07:23 AM UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 20 0617 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

WARNING
Proton 100MeV Integral Flux above 1pfu expected
Issued: Jan 20, 2022 07:22 AM UTC
Proton 100MeV Integral Flux above 1pfu expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 20 0730 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 20 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: An enhancement in the energetic portion of the solar radiation spectrum may indicate increased biological risk to astronauts or passengers and crew in high latitude, high altitude flights. Additionally, energetic particles may represent an increased risk to all satellite systems susceptible to single event effects. This information should be used in conjunction with the current Solar Radiation Storm conditions when assessing overall impact.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: Jan 20, 2022 07:08 AM UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 20 0557 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 329 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: Jan 20, 2022 06:46 AM UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 20 0558 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Jan 20 0603 UTC
End Time: 2022 Jan 20 0624 UTC
Duration: 26 minutes
Peak Flux: 350 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 105 sfu

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: Jan 20, 2022 06:01 AM UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 20 0559 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Jan 20, 2022 04:59 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3188
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 16 1445 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 3165 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: Jan 20, 2022 12:58 AM UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 20 0013 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Jan 20 0013 UTC
End Time: 2022 Jan 20 0013 UTC
Duration: 1 minutes
Peak Flux: 530 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 105 sfu

Comment: Rounded duration to 1 minute.

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 19, 2022 02:59 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4003
Valid From: 2022 Jan 19 0015 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 20 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CANCEL WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jan 19, 2022 02:59 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Cancel Serial Number: 1630
Original Issue Time: 2022 Jan 19 0131 UTC

Comment: Please disregard this K5 Warning. There is currently no K5 Warning in effect.

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jan 19, 2022 02:55 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1629
Valid From: 2022 Jan 19 0130 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 20 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jan 19, 2022 05:50 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1628
Valid From: 2022 Jan 19 0130 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 19 1300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 19, 2022 05:50 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4002
Valid From: 2022 Jan 19 0015 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 19 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Jan 19, 2022 04:59 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3187
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 16 1445 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4361 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Jan 19, 2022 04:05 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 19 0404 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Issued: Jan 19, 2022 03:10 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 19 0259 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Issued: Jan 19, 2022 02:57 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 19 0255 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 19 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Jan 19, 2022 01:54 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 19 0152 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jan 19, 2022 01:31 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 19 0130 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 19 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Jan 19, 2022 01:13 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 19 0113 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 19, 2022 12:15 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 19 0015 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 19 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: Jan 18, 2022 06:10 PM UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 18 1741 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: Jan 18, 2022 06:03 PM UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 18 1731 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 143 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Jan 18, 2022 10:11 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3186
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 16 1445 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2022 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 18, 2022 08:55 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4000
Valid From: 2022 Jan 18 0035 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 18 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Jan 18, 2022 01:09 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 18 0108 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Jan 18, 2022 12:46 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 18 0040 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jan 18, 2022 12:43 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 18 0043 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 18 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 18, 2022 12:34 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 18 0035 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 18 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Jan 17, 2022 10:28 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3185
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 16 1445 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2284 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Jan 16, 2022 08:28 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 16 2023 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 16, 2022 08:19 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 16 2219 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 17 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Jan 16, 2022 03:35 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 16 1445 UTC
Station: GOES-16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 16, 2022 11:56 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3997
Valid From: 2022 Jan 15 1920 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 16 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Jan 15, 2022 10:36 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 15 2235 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jan 15, 2022 10:06 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 15 2206 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 16 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Jan 15, 2022 07:26 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 15 1924 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 15, 2022 07:20 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 15 1920 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 16 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Jan 15, 2022 03:03 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 15 0259 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Issued: Jan 15, 2022 12:01 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 14 2358 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Issued: Jan 14, 2022 11:03 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 14 2300 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 15 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Jan 14, 2022 10:46 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 14 2246 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jan 14, 2022 10:28 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 14 2229 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 15 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Jan 14, 2022 08:39 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 14 2038 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 14, 2022 08:31 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 14 2030 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 15 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: Jan 13, 2022 02:38 PM UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jan 14: None (Below G1) Jan 15: G1 (Minor) Jan 16: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: Jan 12, 2022 04:26 PM UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jan 13: None (Below G1) Jan 14: None (Below G1) Jan 15: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: Jan 12, 2022 05:08 AM UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 12 0426 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 535 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: Jan 10, 2022 12:43 AM UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 09 2252 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 575 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: Jan 10, 2022 12:43 AM UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 09 2221 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 9, 2022 08:55 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3994
Valid From: 2022 Jan 08 2012 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 09 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 8, 2022 11:43 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3993
Valid From: 2022 Jan 08 2012 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 09 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jan 8, 2022 11:42 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1623
Valid From: 2022 Jan 08 2022 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 09 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Jan 8, 2022 11:40 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 08 2335 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Jan 8, 2022 08:35 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 08 2028 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jan 8, 2022 08:23 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 08 2022 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 08 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Jan 8, 2022 08:20 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 08 2008 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 8, 2022 08:12 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 08 2012 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 09 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Jan 8, 2022 01:10 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 08 1245 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 3, 2022 08:55 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3991
Valid From: 2022 Jan 02 2228 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 03 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Jan 3, 2022 05:09 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 03 0505 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 2, 2022 10:28 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 02 2228 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 03 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Jan 1, 2022 04:39 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 01 0435 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jan 1, 2022 04:16 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 01 0415 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 01 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

Table

Date Radio flux 10.7 cm SESC Sunspot number Sunspot area 10E-6 New regions GOES15 X-ray Bkgd flux Flares
X-ray Optical
C M X S 1 2 3
12/29/2021 111 79 670 0 * 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
12/30/2021 102 77 1050 0 * 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
12/31/2021 102 53 480 1 * 5 0 0 2 0 0 0
01/01/2022 94 52 440 1 * 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
01/02/2022 89 25 340 0 * 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/03/2022 84 12 140 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/04/2022 86 12 30 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/05/2022 84 24 270 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/06/2022 94 35 270 0 * 1 0 0 6 0 0 0
01/07/2022 107 38 530 0 * 2 0 0 3 0 0 0
01/08/2022 102 31 530 0 * 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
01/09/2022 102 36 540 2 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/10/2022 102 38 530 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/11/2022 100 51 560 0 * 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
01/12/2022 103 68 590 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/13/2022 106 111 680 3 * 3 0 0 1 0 0 0
01/14/2022 110 112 580 0 * 4 1 0 1 1 0 0
01/15/2022 116 120 830 1 * 5 0 0 0 0 0 1
01/16/2022 116 103 660 1 * 3 0 0 2 0 0 0
01/17/2022 114 99 580 0 * 3 0 0 1 0 0 0
01/18/2022 115 59 600 0 * 2 1 0 2 0 0 0
01/19/2022 105 57 570 0 * 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/20/2022 99 60 351 1 * 2 1 0 0 1 0 0
01/21/2022 97 23 200 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/22/2022 95 22 180 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/23/2022 94 22 190 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/24/2022 95 26 170 1 * 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/25/2022 101 53 190 2 * 5 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/26/2022 102 71 310 1 * 6 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/27/2022 107 85 280 0 * 2 0 0 2 0 0 0
12/31/1969
Average/Total 98 53 430 17 50 4 0 27 2 0 1

Summary graph

Flares

Solar wind

Solar Wind

The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in density, temperature, and speed over time and over solar longitude. These particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy, from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena in it.

The solar wind is divided into two components, respectively termed the slow solar wind and the fast solar wind. The slow solar wind has a velocity of about 400 km/s, a temperature of 1.4–1.6×10e6 K and a composition that is a close match to the corona. By contrast, the fast solar wind has a typical velocity of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×10e5 K and it nearly matches the composition of the Sun's photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as dense and more variable in intensity than the fast solar wind. The slow wind also has a more complex structure, with turbulent regions and large-scale structures.

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) is an excellent indicator of solar activity. Often called the F10.7 index, it is one of the longest running records of solar activity. The F10.7 radio emissions originates high in the chromosphere and low in the corona of the solar atmosphere. The F10.7 correlates well with the sunspot number as well as a number of UltraViolet (UV) and visible solar irradiance records. Reported in “solar flux units”, (s.f.u.), the F10.7 can vary from below 50 s.f.u., to above 300 s.f.u., over the course of a solar cycle.

Flares

Flares

A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 10e25 joules of energy. They are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection. The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona of the sun into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event.

Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), when the plasma medium is heated to tens of millions of kelvin, while the electrons, protons, and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy is spread over frequencies outside the visual range and for this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. The same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections (CME), although the relation between CMEs and flares is still not well established.

The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year cycle (the solar cycle). Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones.

Classification

Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (in watts per square metre, W/m2) of 100 to 800 picometre X-rays near Earth, as measured on the GOES spacecraft.

Classification Peak Flux Range at 100-800 picometer
W/m2
A < 10e-7
B 10e-7 to 10e-6
C 10e-6 to 10e-5
M 10e-5 to 10e-4
X 10e-4 to 10e-3
Z > 10e-3

An earlier flare classification is based on Hα spectral observations. The scheme uses both the intensity and emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring to the flares as: (f)aint, (n)ormal or (b)rilliant. The emitting surface is measured in terms of millionths of the hemisphere and is described below. (The total hemisphere area AH = 6.2 × 1012 km2.)

Classification Corrected area
(millionths of hemisphere)
S < 100
1 100 - 250
2 250 - 600
3 600 - 1200
4 > 1200

Sunspot number

Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They correspond to concentrations of magnetic field that inhibit convection and result in reduced surface temperature compared to the surrounding photosphere. Sunspots usually appear in pairs, with pair members of opposite magnetic polarity. The number of sunspots varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.

Sunspot populations quickly rise and more slowly fall on an irregular cycle of 11 years, although significant variations in the number of sunspots attending the 11-year period are known over longer spans of time. For example, from 1900 to the 1960s, the solar maxima trend of sunspot count has been upward; from the 1960s to the present, it has diminished somewhat. Over the last decades the Sun has had a markedly high average level of sunspot activity; it was last similarly active over 8,000 years ago.

The number of sunspots correlates with the intensity of solar radiation over the period since 1979, when satellite measurements of absolute radiative flux became available. Since sunspots are darker than the surrounding photosphere it might be expected that more sunspots would lead to less solar radiation and a decreased solar constant. However, the surrounding margins of sunspots are brighter than the average, and so are hotter; overall, more sunspots increase the Sun's solar constant or brightness. The variation caused by the sunspot cycle to solar output is relatively small, on the order of 0.1% of the solar constant (a peak-to-trough range of 1.3 W/m2 compared to 1366 W/m2 for the average solar constant).

K-indices



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Data


Estimated Planetary

Estimated Planetary

Date A K-indices (UTC)
0h 3h 6h 9h 12h 15h 18h 21h
12/30/2021 8 3 2 1 3 2 1 2 1
12/31/2021 4 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
01/01/2022 11 2 4 3 2 2 3 3 2
01/02/2022 10 3 2 1 2 1 3 2 3
01/03/2022 12 2 4 4 3 2 2 1 2
01/04/2022 6 3 3 1 2 1 0 0 1
01/05/2022 3 1 2 0 0 1 2 0 0
01/06/2022 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
01/07/2022 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/08/2022 14 0 0 1 1 1 2 5 5
01/09/2022 10 3 3 2 1 2 1 2 3
01/10/2022 6 3 2 1 0 1 2 2 2
01/11/2022 5 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 0
01/12/2022 4 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
01/13/2022 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
01/14/2022 15 0 0 1 1 1 3 4 6
01/15/2022 22 5 3 3 2 3 3 4 5
01/16/2022 19 5 3 3 2 3 3 4 3
01/17/2022 9 3 1 1 2 3 3 2 2
01/18/2022 18 5 3 3 2 3 3 3 3
01/19/2022 23 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 2
01/20/2022 5 3 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
01/21/2022 8 1 0 1 1 2 2 3 3
01/22/2022 10 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3
01/23/2022 8 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
01/24/2022 4 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 2
01/25/2022 13 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
01/26/2022 10 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3
01/27/2022 7 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3
01/28/2022 7 2

Middle Latitude

Date A K-indices
12/30/2021 7 3 1 1 3 2 1 1 1
12/31/2021 2 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
01/01/2022 9 2 3 3 2 1 2 2 2
01/02/2022 7 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 3
01/03/2022 9 1 3 3 3 2 2 1 1
01/04/2022 5 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 0
01/05/2022 3 0 2 0 1 1 2 1 0
01/06/2022 2 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 0
01/07/2022 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0
01/08/2022 9 0 0 1 1 2 2 4 4
01/09/2022 7 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2
01/10/2022 4 3 2 0 0 1 1 1 1
01/11/2022 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 0
01/12/2022 3 0 1 0 0 2 2 2 1
01/13/2022 3 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 1
01/14/2022 10 0 0 1 1 2 3 2 5
01/15/2022 17 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 4
01/16/2022 16 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3
01/17/2022 6 3 0 1 2 2 2 1 2
01/18/2022 12 4 3 2 2 2 3 2 2
01/19/2022 15 5 3 4 2 2 2 1 1
01/20/2022 5 4 0 0 0 1 1 2 1
01/21/2022 5 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 3
01/22/2022 7 2 3 2 1 2 1 1 2
01/23/2022 7 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 1
01/24/2022 3 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 1
01/25/2022 10 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2
01/26/2022 8 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 2
01/27/2022 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
01/28/2022 1

High Latitude

Date A K-indices
12/30/2021 10 1 0 0 5 3 2 1 1
12/31/2021 5 0 0 0 2 3 3 0 1
01/01/2022 10 0 3 3 3 3 2 2 1
01/02/2022 7 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 2
01/03/2022 14 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1
01/04/2022 5 1 2 1 3 3 0 0 0
01/05/2022 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
01/06/2022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/07/2022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/08/2022 4 0 0 1 0 2 1 3 2
01/09/2022 12 4 2 2 2 4 2 2 1
01/10/2022 2 1 1 0 0 2 0 1 1
01/11/2022 3 0 1 2 0 2 2 1 0
01/12/2022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/13/2022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
01/14/2022 8 0 0 1 0 2 3 4 3
01/15/2022 36 4 3 2 4 6 6 4 4
01/16/2022 35 4 3 2 4 6 6 4 3
01/17/2022 13 3 1 1 3 4 4 2 2
01/18/2022 24 4 2 5 4 4 4 3 3
01/19/2022 25 5 5 3 4 5 1 2 2
01/20/2022 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 0
01/21/2022 4 1 0 0 2 1 2 2 2
01/22/2022 13 1 3 2 4 4 3 1 2
01/23/2022 2 2 2 0
01/24/2022 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
01/25/2022 23 2 2 2 6 3 5 3 2
01/26/2022 12 2 1 2 4 4 2 2 2
01/27/2022 9 1 0 2 4 4 1 1 1
01/28/2022 1

About

The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm. It is derived from the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer during a three-hour interval. The label K comes from the German word Kennziffer meaning “characteristic digit”. The K-index was introduced by Julius Bartels in 1938.

The Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp-index is derived at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center using data from the following ground-based magnetometers:

  • Sitka, Alaska
  • Meanook, Canada
  • Ottawa, Canada
  • Fredericksburg, Virginia
  • Hartland, UK
  • Wingst, Germany
  • Niemegk, Germany
  • Canberra, Australia

These data are made available thanks to the cooperative efforts between SWPC and data providers around the world, which currently includes the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), the British Geological Survey, the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), and Geoscience Australia. Important magnetometer observations are also contributed by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and the Korean Space Weather Center K-index Watches are issued when the highest predicted NOAA estimated Kp-indices for a day are K = 5, 6, 7, or >= 8 and is reported in terms of the NOAA G scale. K-index Warnings are issued when NOAA estimated Kp-indices of 4, 5, 6, and 7 or greater are expected. K-index Alerts are issued when the NOAA estimated Kp-indices reach 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.


More info
Data source: NOAA, Wikipedia

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